Foresters must inventory large landscapes on a regular (periodic) basis. Due to the magnitude of this task, there is a long history of viable shortcuts that have merit when determining the kind and intensity of field sample designs. However, this task does not have a constant, single objective. Traditionally, a field sample was obtained to provide a robust estimate of total tree wood volume per acre (or hectare) for each stand or timber type. This has evolved significantly in recent decades. The major objective more recently is to define the species composition and structure (size, density and spatial pattern) within each geographically contiguous stand polygon. It is this vegetative composition and structure that causes significant departures in future projections under alternative silvicultural regimes. Therefore, some traditional cruise designs may not be sufficient.